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Nov 22, 2012

Choronology


BEFORE CHRIST
1900        Construction of Stonehenge begins around this time
12-1300   Invasion of England by Celtic-speaking peoples
55-54       Julius Caesar’s expeditions reach England
THE OLD ENGLISH PERIOD
5-40        Reign of Cunobelinus (Cymbeline)
43           Roman conquest of England
122          Romans begin construction of Hadrian’s Wall to defend Britain against invasions from the north
313          Christianity introduced in England
350          Invasion of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes begins
429          Withdrawal of Roman legions from England is complete by this date or earlier
5??           Arthur defeated and killed in Civil War
597          St. Augustine re-establishes the Roman Church in England
663          Roman Christianity is endorsed by the Synod of Whitby (instead of Celtic Christianity)
731          Bede, An Ecclesiastical History of the English People ["Caedmon's Hymn"]
757          Offa, King of Mercia, begins his reign
802          Egbert, King of Wessex
856-75     Viking raids at their peak
871-99     King Alfred the Great of Wessex (defeater of the Danes)
900-950   An English state is established
978           Ethelred the Unready reigns; Danish invasions resume
____         The Dream of the Rood
                 Beowulf
                 The Battle of Maldon
                 The Wanderer
1016         Canut of Denmark rules England, Denmark, and Norway
1042         King Edward the Confessor (Wessex line)
1066         William the Conqueror (NORMANDY) defeats Harold II in The Battle of Hastings
1086         The Doomsday Book
1087         William II (third son of William) King
1100         William II shot in ambush. Henry I (youngest son of William) King
1135         Stephen (BLOIS–grandson of William I by daughter) competes with Empress Matilda for throne (“The Anarchy”)
1154         Henry II (PLANTAGENT– grandson of Henry I by daughter)
1170         Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury,  murdered in the cathedral
                 Oxford University founded at about this time
1169         Conquest of Ireland is begun
1189         Richard I, Coeur de Lion (son of Henry II) King
1190         Richard goes on Crusade, to return in 1194
1199         John Lackland (son of Henry II, brother of Richard) King

THE MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD
1210     Cambridge University founded at about this time
1215     Magna Carta
1216     Henry III (son of John) King (builder of Westminster Abbey)
1272     Edward I, Longshanks, Prince of Wales King (son of Henry III)
1284     Conquest of Wales
1290     Jews Expelled from England
1307     Edward II (son of Edward I) King; deposed and murdered in 1327 by Queen Isabella and Mortimer
1327     Edward III of Windsor (son of Edward II, grandson of John) King
1337     100 Years War Begins (Edward III’s claim to crown of France)
1346     Battle of Crecy, England defeats France’s feudal armies
1348    The Black Death Strikes England
1362    William Langland, The Vision of Piers Plowman 
            English officially replaces French as the language of the court
1375     Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
1377     Richard II (grandson of Edward III) King
1381    Peasant’s Revolt
1386     ChaucerCanterbury Tales
1393     Julian of Norwich, Book of Showings, contains her visions from God
____    The Second Shepherds’ Play
1399     Henry IV (LANCASTER–grandson of Edward III) King
1400     Welsh revolt under Owen Glendower
1403     Henry Percy (Shakespeare’s Hotspur) defeated at Shrewsbury
1413     Henry V, Prince Hal (son of Henry IV) King
1415     Battle of Agincourt; five years later, Henry recognised as heir to French crown
1422     Henry VI (Son of Henry V)
1431    Joan of Arc is burned
1432     Margery Kempe, The Book of Margery Kempe
1453     Hundred Years War ends with conquest of of Guienne by the French
1455     The War of The Roses Begins–Lancaster vs. York
1461     Edward IV (YORK–Great-great-grandson Edward III) King, temporarily deposes Henry VI
1469     Sir Thomas Malory (Morte D’arthur)
1471     Henry VI murdered
1483     Edward V (son of Edward IV) King and murdered
             Richard III, Crookback King
1485     Richard III dies in battle at Bosworth–The War of the Roses ends
             Henry VII King (TUDOR– married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV)
____     Everyman

THE 16th CENTURY
1509     Henry VIII (son of Henry VII) King
1516     Sir Thomas Moore’s Utopia 
            (also wrote History of King Richard III; he was killed for his Catholic faith)
1517     Reformation Begins
1533     Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterburry, validates Henry’s marriage to Anne Boleyn
1534-5  Papal authority abolished in England; Moore executed; Act of Supremacy
____   John Skelton, “Colin Clout”
1534     Henry VIII acknowledged “supreme Head on Earth” by Anglican Church
1537    Howard, Earl of Surrey (“My Friend,  the Things That Do Attain”) imprisoned
1538   Great English Bible
1541    Wyatt (“Whoso List to Hunt”) imprisoned
1547     Edward VI  King
1553     Mary I, “Bloody Mary” Queen (daughter of Henry VIII)
             Attempts to restore Catholicism, repeals anti-papal legislation
1554    Lady Jane Grey executed
1558     Mary I dies childless. Elizabeth I (daughter Henry VIII) Queen
1559    Act of Supremacy restores Anglican Church
1560    Anglo-Scottish Alliance in Treaty of Edninburgh
1561     Mary Queen of Scotts (Catholic) begins rule in Scotland
             Sir Thomas Hoby, translation of The Courtier
1563    The Thirty-Nine Articles of the Anglican Church
1564    Shakespeare is born
1567     Mary Queen of Scots imprisoned in England (driven from throne by Calvinists)
1578     John LylyEuphues: The Anatomy of Wit
1587     Elizabeth beheads Mary Queen of Scots for Catholic plots
1588     Defeat of the Spanish Armada
1590     Edmund SpencerThe Faerie Queen
1591     Sir Philip Sidney, “Astrophil and Stella”
1592     Christopher MarloweDr. Faustus and Hero and Leander 
             Thomas NashePierce Penniless, His Supplication to the Devil
1593   Richard Hooker defends existing practices in Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity
1598   Revolt in Ireland
1601   Essex executed for rebellion
           Thomas Campion (“My Sweetest Lesbia.” “Rose-Cheeked Laura,” “Fain Would I Wed”)
           Shakespeare begins Hamlet about this time

 EARLY 17th CENTURY
1603     Elizabeth dies. James I (STUART), James VI of  Scotland King
1605     The Gunpowder Plot
             Francis Bacon writes The Advancement of Learning (In 1620 Novum Organum)
1606     Ben Jonson’s play Volpone published
1611     King James Bible Published
1615    John Donne (“The Ecstasy”, “The Canonization”, etc.) becomes Anglican priest
1616     Shakespeare dies
1618     30 Years War begins in Europe
1620     Pilgrims depart for New England
1600′s   John Webster publishes his play The Duchess of Malf
1625     Charles I (son of James I) King
1629     Charles I dissolves parliament
1633     George HerbertThe Temple (“Jordan”, “The Pulley”, “Love”, etc.)
1638     Scottish revolt over imposition of Laudian liturgy
1640     Charles I, in need of tax money for war, convenes “The Long Parliament”
             Izaak Walton, The Life of Donne
             Thomas Carew, “A Rapture”
1641    Irish revolt
1642    English Civil War              
            Theaters closed
            Sir John Denham, “Cooper’s Hill”
1645     Edmund Waller, “Go, Lovely Rose!”
1646     Richard Crashaw, “Steps to the Temple”, “The Flaming Heart”
             Sir John Suckling, “Loving and Beloved”
1648     30 Years War Ends
             Robert HerrickHesperides (“The Vine”) and Noble Numbers (sacred)
1649     Charles I beheaded. Council of State rules (Commonwealth/Protectorate)
             Richard Lovelace “To Althea, from Prison” and “To Lucasta, Going to the Wars”
1650     Henry Vaughn, “Silex Scintillans”
1651     Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan
1653     Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector
____     First appearance of women on stage
___       First performance of an English opera
1656     Abraham Cowley, “Ode: Of Wit”
1658     Richard Cromwell, “Tumble-down Dick” (son of Oliver), Lord Protector
____     Andrew Marvell, “To His Coy Mistress”
             Samuel Pepys (diary later published in 1825)

THE RESTORATION AND 18th CENTURY
1660        The Restoration (Charles II)
1662         Royal Society of London incorporated to promote arts and sciences
1663         Samuel Butler, “Hudibras”
                 John Milton, Paradise Lost
1665         The Plague breaks out
1666         The Great Fire of London
1673         Test Act requires office holders to accept rites of the Anglican Church
1675         John Bunyan writes Pilgrim’s Progress during second imprisonment
                 Christopher Wren is chosen to design St. Paul’s
1676         Sir George Etherege, The Man of Mode
1677         John Dryden, All For Love
1678         Titus Oates exposes the details of a fictious Popish Plot to kill the King
1680         Exclusion Bill Crisis
1681         John Dryden, “Absalom and Achitophel”
1682         Thomas Otway, Venice Preserv’d
1685         James II King
1687         Isaac Newton, Principles of Mathematics
1688         The Glorious Revolution
1689        Bill of Rights passed
1690        John LockeEssay Concerning Human Understanding
1696        Sir John Vanbrugh, The Relapse
1700        William Congreve, The Way of the World
1701        Act of Settlement stipulates that Anne, Protestant daughter of James II, is to succeed William
1702        Anne (second daughter of James II) Queen
1704         The Duke of Marlborough’s victory at Blenheim against the French
1707         George Farquhar, The Beaux’ Stragem 
                 Act of Union (Scotland + England = “Great Britain”)
1709-11    Addison (paper Tattler)
1711         Alexander Pope’s “An Essay on Criticism” (later wrote “An Essay on Man”)
1711-2      Steele’s paper Spectator
1713         Treaty of Utrecht ends the war with Louis XIV
1714         George I (HANOVER–son of granddaughter of James I) King
                Alexander Pope, “Rape of the Lock”
1715         First Jacobite Rebellion:
                “The Old Pretender” (son of James II) attempts to restore Stuart rule
1719         Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe is published – the first novel in english
1726         Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels
1727         George II
1728         John Gay, The Beggar’s Opera
1729         John Wesley founds Methodist Society
1730         James Thomson, “The Seasons”
1731         Henry Fielding, Tom Thumb
1739         War of Jenkin’s Ear (with Spain) begins (to 1741)
1746         Second Jacobite rebellion crushed at Culloden
                 (Bonnie Prince Charles–grandson of James II–tried to regain the throne)
                 William Collins (“Ode on the Poetical Character”)
1740 – Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded is an epistolary novel by Samuel Richardson, first published in 1740. It tells the story of a maid named Pamela whose master, Mr. B, makes unwanted advances towards her. She rejects him continually, and her virtue is eventually rewarded when he shows his sincerity by proposing an equitable marriage to her. In the second part of the novel, Pamela attempts to accommodate herself to upper-class society and to build a successful relationship with him. The story was widely mocked at the time for its perceived licentiousness
1741 - An Apology for the Life of Mrs. Shamela Andrews, or Shamela, as it is more commonly known, is a satirical novel written by Henry Fielding and first published under the name of Mr. Conny Keyber. (Fielding never owned to writing the work but it is widely considered to be his.) It is a direct attack on the then-popular novel Pamela by Fielding’s contemporary and rival, Samuel Richardson and is composed, like Pamela, in epistolary form.
1751         Thomas Gray, “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard”
                 Henry FieldingAmelia
1755         Samuel Johnson finishes his Dictionary (James Boswell later writes his biography)
1756         The Seven Years’ War (French and Indian Wars) begins
1759         Wolfe captures Quebec
1760         George III (grandson of George II) King
1761         William Pitt resigns as Prime Minister when his colleagues refuse to fight Spain
1763         Treaty of Paris ends the Seven Years War

The First Gothic Novel…

1764 – Horace Walpole’s Gothic novelThe Castle of Otranto 
1768         Cook’s voyage to Australia
1770         Oliver Goldsmith, “The Deserted Village”
1771         Richard Cumberland, The West Indian
1773         Oliver Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer
1775         War for American Independence Begins
                 Jane Austen is born
1776         Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations
                 Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (first volume)
1777         Richard Brinsley Sheridan, The School for Scandal
1783         William Pitt (younger) prime minister
1785         William Cowper, “The Task”
1790 -  A Sicilian Romance – Ann Radcliffe
1791 - The Romance of the Forest - Ann Radcliffe
1794         William Godwin’s “Things as They Are or The Adventures of Caleb Williams” – the first thriller – and a real page turner
794 –  The Mysteries of Udolpho – Ann Radcliffe
1796 – The Italian – Ann Radcliffe
THE ROMANTIC PERIOD
1786     Robert Burns: Poems, Chiefly in the Scotish Dialect
1789     *The French Revolution begins*
1790     Songs of Innocence and Experience by William Blake
1792     Mary WollstonecraftA Vindication of the Rights of Woman
1793     Bastille stormed. Louis XVI executed. Reign of Terror under Robespierre.
             England wars with France; the Napoleonic Wars begin
1798     Wordsworth and Coleridge publish Lyrical Ballads
1801     Great Britain and Ireland Unite as the “United Kingdom
1804     Napoleon crowned emperor
1805     Battle of Trafalgar
1811     The Regency
             Prince of Wales acts as regent for George III, who has been declared incurably insane
1812     War with the United States
1813     Jane AustenPride and Prejudice
1815     Napoleon defeated at Waterloo
1817     William Hazlitt, critic, On Gusto
             Jane Austen dies
1818     Lord Byron begins “Don Juan”
             Mary (Wollstonecraft) ShellyFrankenstein
1819     John Keats “Ode to a Nightingale”
             Sir Walter ScottIvanhoe
             Peterloo Massacre
1820     George IV (son of George III) King
             Thomas Love Peackockcritic The Four Ages of Poetry 
             Percy Shelley “To a Skylark” and “Adonais”
1821     Thomas De Quincey Confessions of an English Opium Eater
1823     Charles LambChrist Hospital Five and Thirty Years Ago
1829     Catholic Emancipation Act
1830     William IV (3rd son of George III) King
             Thomas Moore Life of Byron

THE VICTORIAN AGE / 19th CENTURY
1832     First Reform Bill
1834     Poor Law Reform Act
1837     Victoria (daughter of 4th son of George III) Queen
             Thomas Carlyle publishes The French Revolution
1841     Peel Prime Minister
1845     Great Potato Famine
1846     Corn Laws repealed (i.e the tariff on grains)
1847     Charlotte BronteJane Eyre 
             Anne Bronte, Agnes Gray
             William Thackery, Vanity Fair
1848     Emily Bronte Wuthering Heights
             Macaulay, History of England
1850     Tennyson publishes “In Memoriam” and succeeds Wordsworth as poet  laureate
1851     Matthew Arnold, “Dover Beach”
             Charles Dickens, Bleak House
1854    Crimean War
1855     Robert Browning“Men and Women”
1856     John Ruskin ,”On the Pathetic Fallacy”
1857     Elizabeth Barret Browning, “Aurora Leigh”
             Anthony Trollope, Barchester Towers
             Indian Mutiny
1858     William Morris “The Defense of Guenevere”
1859     Charles Darwin, Origin of Species 
             Edward Fitzgerald “The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam”
            George Eliot, Adam Bede
1861    John Stuart Mill, Representative Government
1865     Lewis CarrollAlice in Wonderland
1866     Algernon Swinburne, “The Triumph of Time” (“Poems and Ballads”)
1867     Second Reform Act
1868     Walter Pater, Aesthetic Poetry             Gladstone Prime Minister
1870-1  Franco Prussian War
1871     George EliotMiddlemarch
             Religious tests at Universities Abolished
1872     Christina Rossetti, “Goblin Market”
____     Thomas Henry Huxley gives his “Science and Culture” lectures
             Dante Gabriel Rosetti, “The House of Life”
1874    Disraeli Prime Minsiter
            Thomas Harding, Far From the Madding Crowd
1875     William Ernest Henley, “In Hospital–Waiting”
             Gilbert and Sullivan, Trial by Jury
             Britain acquires Suez Canal
1877     Gerard Manley Hopkins“God’s Grandeur”
             
Victoria declared Empress of India
1879     George Meredith, The Egoist
1884     Third Reform Act
1886     Salsibury Prime Minister
1888     Kipling, Plain Tales from the Hills
1891     Thomas Hardy, Tess of the D’Urbevilles

TWENTIETH CENTURY
1894     Rudyard Kipling, Jungle Books
1895     Oscar WildeThe Importance of Being Earnest
1899     Boer War
1900     Joseph Conrad, Lord Jim
1901     Edward VII (son of Victoria–SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA)
1902     William Butler Yeats “Adam’s Curse”
             Balfour Prime Minister
1903     Henry James, The Ambassadors
1905     H.G. Wells, Kipps
1908     E.M. Forster, A Room With A View
1910     George V (2nd son of Ed VII–WINDSOR)
1913     D.H. Lawrence, Sons and Lovers 
             Vachel Lindsay, General William Booth Enters Into Heaven
1914     World War I
             Ezra Pound organizes the Imagists
1916     Lloyd George Prime Minister
1918     Gerard Manley Hopkins’s poetry published after death
             Siegfried Sassoon “Glory of Women”; Wilfred Owen “Dulce Et Decorum Est”
            Women (age 30 or over) get right to vote; universal male suffrage
1920    Partition established in Government of Ireland Act
1922     T.S. Eliot, The Wasteland 
             James Joyce, Ulyssess
1923     George Bernard Shaw, Saint Joan
1924     First Labour Government
1925     Virignia Wolf, Mrs. Dalloway             
1930     Evelyn Waugh publishes Vile Bodies
1932     Aldous Huxley, Brave New World
1933     A.E. Housman, The Name and Nature of Poetry
1934     Robert Graves, I, Claudius              
1936     Edward VIII (son of Geroge V) King then abdicates
             George VI (2nd son of George V) King
             Spanish Civil War Begins
             Keynes, General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money
1937     W.H. Auden, “Spain, 1937″
             Louis Macneice, “Carrickfergus”
            Chamberlain Prime Minister
1938     Graham Greene Brighton Rock 
             C.S. LewisOut of The Silent Planet
1939     World War II
1940     Churchill Prime Minister
1945      George Orwell, Animal Farm 
              Henry Reed“Naming of Parts”
1947      Independence granted to India and Pakistan
1952     Elizabeth II (daughter of George VI);    Samuel Beckett, Waiting for Godot
1954     William Golding, The Lord of the Flies
1955     Philip Larkin, “Church Going”
1956     Suez Crisis
1957     Stevie Smith, “Not Waving But Drowning” ;  Ghana obtains independence
1960     Ted Hughes, “Relic”
1979     Thatcher Prime Minsiter

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