1. Postcolonial literature often addresses the problems and consequences of the
decolonization of a country, especially questions relating to the political and cultural
independence of formerly subjugated people, and themes such as racialism and
colonialism. A range of literary theories has evolved around the subject. It addresses the
role of literature in perpetuating and challenging what postcolonial critic Edward Said
refers to as cultural imperialism.
2. Migrant literature and postcolonial literature show some considerable overlap.
However, not all migration takes place in a colonial setting, and not all postcolonial
literature deals with migration. A question of the current debate is the extent to which
postcolonial theory also speaks to migration literature in non-colonial settings.
3. The significance of the prefix "post-" in "postcolonial" is a matter of contention among
scholars and historians. In postcolonial studies, there has not been a unified consensus
on when colonialism began and when it has ended (with numerous scholars contending
that it has not). However, the majority of scholars have agreed that the term
"postcolonial" designates an era "after" colonialism has ended. The contention has been
influenced by the history of colonialism, which is commonly divided into several major
phases; the European colonization of the Americas began in the 15th century and lasted
until the 19th, while the colonisation of Africa and Asia reached their peak in the 19th
century. By the dawn of the 20th century, the vast majority of non-European regions
were under European colonial rule; this would last until after the Second World War
when anti-colonial independence movements led to the decolonization of Africa, Asia
and the Americas. Historians have also expressed differing opinions in regards to the
postcolonial status of nations established through settler colonialism, such as the United
States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Ongoing neocolonialism in the Global
South and the effects of colonialism (many of which have persisted after the end of
direct colonial rule) have made it difficult to determine whether or not a nation being no
longer under colonial rule guarantees its postcolonial status.
4. Before the term "postcolonial literature" gained currency among scholars,
"commonwealth literature" was used to refer to writing in English from colonies or
nations which belonged to the British Commonwealth. Even though the term included
literature from Britain, it was most commonly used for writing in English written in British
colonies. Scholars of commonwealth literature used the term to designate writing in
English that dealt with the topic of colonialism. They advocated for its inclusion in literary
curricula, hitherto dominated by the British canon. However, the succeeding generation
of postcolonial critics, many of whom belonged to the post-structuralist philosophical
tradition, took issue with the "commonwealth" label for separating non-British writing
from "English" language literature written in Britain. They also suggested that texts in this
category frequently presented a short-sighted view on the legacy of colonialism.
5. Other terms used for English-language literature from former British colonies include
terms that designate a national corpus of writing such as Australian or Canadian
literature; numerous terms such as "English Literature Other than British and American",
"New Literatures in English", "International Literature in English"; and "World Literatures"
were coined. These have, however, been dismissed either as too vague or too
inaccurate to represent the vast body of dynamic writing emerging from British colonies
during and after the period of direct colonial rule. The term "colonial" and "postcolonial"
continue to be used for writing emerging during and after the period of colonial rule
6. The consensus in the field is that "post-colonial" (with a hyphen) signifies a period that
comes chronologically "after" colonialism. "Postcolonial," on the other hand, signals the
persisting impact of colonization across time periods and geographical regions. While
the hyphen implies that history unfolds in neatly distinguishable stages from pre- to
post-colonial, omitting the hyphen creates a comparative framework by which to
understand the varieties of local resistance to colonial impact. Arguments in favour of the
hyphen suggest that the term "postcolonial" dilutes differences between colonial
histories in different parts of the world and that it homogenizes colonial societies. The
body of critical writing that participates in these debates is called Postcolonial theory.
7. Postcolonial Literature Characteristics
1) Appropriation of Colonial Languages. Postcolonial writers have this thing they like
2) Metanarrative. Colonizers liked to tell a certain story.
4) Colonial Discourse.
5) Rewriting History.
6) Decolonization Struggles.
7) Nationhood and Nationalism.
8) Valorization of Cultural Identity.
1. Ecofeminism is a branch of feminism that sees environmentalism, and the relationship
between women and the earth, as foundational to its analysis and practice. Ecofeminist
thinkers draw on the concept of gender to analyse the relationships between humans and
the natural world. The term was coined by the French writer Françoise d'Eaubonne in her
book Le Féminisme ou la Mort (1974). Ecofeminist theory asserts a feminist perspective of
Green politics that calls for an egalitarian, collaborative society in which there is no one
dominant group. Today, there are several branches of ecofeminism, with varying approaches
and analyses, including liberal ecofeminism, spiritual/cultural ecofeminism, and
social/socialist ecofeminism (or materialist ecofeminism). Interpretations of ecofeminism and
how it might be applied to social thought include ecofeminist art, social justice and political
philosophy, religion, contemporary feminism, and poetry.
2. Ecofeminist analysis explores the connections between women and nature in culture,
economy, religion, politics, literature and iconography, and addresses the parallels between
the oppression of nature and the oppression of women. These parallels include but are not
limited to seeing women and nature as property, seeing men as the curators of culture and
women as the curators of nature, and how men dominate women and humans dominate
nature. Ecofeminism emphasizes that both women and nature must be respected.
3. Though the scope of ecofeminist analysis is dynamic, American author and ecofeminist
Charlene Spretnak have offered one way of categorizing ecofeminist work:
1) through the study of political theory as well as history;
2) through the belief and study of nature-based religions;
3) through environmentalism.
4. While diverse ecofeminist perspectives have emerged from female activists and thinkers
all over the world, academic studies of ecofeminism have been dominated by North
American universities. Thus, in the 1993 essay entitled "Ecofeminism: Toward Global Justice
and Planetary Health" authors Greta Gaard and Lori Gruen outline what they call the
"ecofeminist framework". The essay provides a wealth of data and statistics in addition to
outlining the theoretical aspects of the ecofeminist critique. The framework described is
intended to establish ways of viewing and understanding our current global situations so that
we can better understand how we arrived at this point and what may be done to ameliorate
the ills. Building on the work of North American scholars Rosemary Ruether and Carolyn
Merchant, Gaard and Gruen argue that there are four sides to this framework:
5. The mechanistic materialist model of the universe that resulted from the scientific
revolution and the subsequent reduction of all things into mere resources to be optimized,
dead inert matter to be used.
The rise of patriarchal religions and their establishment of gender hierarchies along with their
denial of immanent divinity.
The self and other dualisms and the inherent power and domination ethic it entails.
Capitalism and its claimed intrinsic need for the exploitation, destruction and
instrumentalization of animals, earth and people for the sole purpose of creating wealth.
They hold that these four factors have brought us to what ecofeminists see as a "separation
between nature and culture" that is for them the root source of our planetary ills.
6. Ecofeminism developed out of anarcha-feminist concerns with abolishing all forms of
domination while focusing on the oppressive nature of humanity's relationship to the natural
world. According to Françoise d'Eaubonne in her book Le Féminisme ou la Mort (1974),
ecofeminism relates the oppression and domination of all marginalized groups (women,
people of colour, children, the poor) to the oppression and domination of nature (animals,
land, water, air, etc.). In the book, the author argues that oppression, domination,
exploitation, and colonization from the Western patriarchal society has directly caused
irreversible environmental damage. Françoise d'Eaubonne was an activist and organizer,
and her writing encouraged the eradication of all social injustice, not just injustice against
women and the environment.
7. This tradition includes a number of influential texts including Women and Nature (Susan
Griffin 1978), The Death of Nature (Carolyn Merchant 1980) and Gyn/Ecology (Mary Daly
1978). These texts helped to propel the association between domination by men of women
and the domination of culture over nature. From these texts feminist activism of the 1980s
linked ideas of ecology and the environment. Movements such as the National Toxics
Campaign, Mothers of East Los Angeles (MELA), and Native Americans for a Clean
Environment (NACE) were led by women devoted to issues of human health and
environmental justice. Writings in this circle discussed ecofeminism drawing from Green
Party politics, peace movements, and direct action movements.
8. Four main ecofeminist principles:
1) Both the oppression of marginalized groups and the oppression of nature are
connected by cause.
2) We must replace our culture of domination with an ethic of care.
3) All forms of oppression are unacceptable—and interconnected.
4) Understanding these connections is necessary for equitable change.